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Showing posts from May, 2006

Romans 6:10

ο R-ASN γαρ CONJ απεθανεν V-2AAI-3S τη T-DSF αμαρτια N-DSF απεθανεν V-2AAI-3S For that he died he died to sin, ………………………. εφαπαξ ADV ………………………. once for all, ο R-ASN δε CONJ ζη V-PAI-3S ζη V-PAI-3S τω T-DSM θεω N-DSM but that he lives he lives to God I am seriously running out of steam trying to tackle these verses, seeing them verse by verse does come to some repetitive work as Paul builds on it the same message as he concludes his first question of "what then, shall we sin so grace may abound?" But this particular verse, which should be taken with the previous verse as it gives proof to the last statement of v.9, is simply beautiful in Greek. ο δε ζη ζη τω θεω (ho de ze ze to theo) but that he lives he lives to God What is significant about v.10, I feel is 2 things: (1) how does Christ die to sin when he is sinless and (2) the significance of εφαπαξ, once and for all . απεθανεν τη αμαρτια We died to sin (απεθανομεν τη αμαρτια, v.2) and Christ died to sin on

Romans 6:9

ειδοτες V-RAP-NPM οτι CONJ χριστος N-NSM εγερθεις V-APP-NSM εκ PREP νεκρων A-GPM We know that Christ being raised from the dead ………………. ουκετι ADV αποθνησκει V-PAI-3S ………………. will never die again ………………. θανατος N-NSM αυτου P-GSM ουκετι ADV κυριευει V-PAI-3S ………………. death no longer has dominion over him. ειδοτες οτι Knowing that - an undoubted article of belief. ουκετι αποθνησκει Will never die again - what Christ has done is enough, there will not be any other requirement as in the repeated burnt offerings, for what he has made is sufficient for all ουκετι κυριευει No more dominion - death has no rule, no lordship, no power over him . Maeghan

Romans 6:8

ει COND δε CONJ απεθανομεν V-2AAI-1P συν PREP χριστω N-DSM But if we died with Christ ………….. πιστευομεν V-PAI-1P οτι CONJ και CONJ συζησομεν V-FAI-1P ………….. αυτω P-DSM ………….. we believe that we will also live with him Paul here reiterates what he has already stated in v.5 as well as to draw out the significance of that connection which he follows up in v.9-10. And we see similar usage of tenses - aorist for died and future for live , pointing to the promise of the eschatological resurrection of our lives in Christ. συν χριστω This phrase only occurs here in Romans, though the formula is virtually present in certain occurrences of συν-compounds (v.4, 6, 8b and 8:17) . The formula seems to have originated with Paul (Grundmann) and is used most often with reference to fellowship with Christ in the eschatological glory, but it is also used with past tenses with reference to baptism and to that which baptism is the witness. (Cranfield p.312) πιστευομεν οτι I am not too sure abo

Romans 6:7 Why not "justify"?

Moo addresses the v.7 issue I highlighted yesterday. Here's a summary of his comments. Verse 7 explains the connection in v.6 between death (crucified with Christ) and freedom from sin (no longer serve sin), but how it does so, however, is debated. One view - he who died with Christ has been justified, in the usual Pauline sense, acquited from the penalty of sin. But Paul does not connect our dying with our justification anywhere else. Some suggested that "he who died" refers to Christ, who through his death secured justification for himself and others - but this introduces a shift in subject for which the context has not prepared us. Now, this would explain why NIV and NASB does not translate it as justify . With this, it is likely that "justified from sins" means "set free from the power of sin". "The one who dies" still refer to "the one who has died with Christ". So rather than virtually repeating v.6, it is more likely t

Romans 6:7

I could not find any answers yet to the questions I raised in v.6 and so I'm moving on to the next verse. ο T-NSM γαρ CONJ αποθανων V-2AAP-NSM For he who has died ……… δεδικαιωται V-RPI-3S απο PREP της T-GSF αμαρτιας N-GSF ……… has been justified from sin δεδικαιωται: many bible translations have translated this word as freed , including NIV and NASB . The older translations like ASV and RV uses justified . Is there a difference? Maeghan

I am in pain and distress; may your salvation, O God, protect me.

I am not able to post anything on Romans today. I was down with the worst migraine in years! This psalm however meant a lot to me today. I thank God for his grace and love. Psalm 69 (New International Version) For the director of music. To the tune of "Lilies." Of David. 1 Save me, O God, for the waters have come up to my neck. 2 I sink in the miry depths, where there is no foothold. I have come into the deep waters; the floods engulf me. 3 I am worn out calling for help; my throat is parched. My eyes fail, looking for my God. 4 Those who hate me without reason outnumber the hairs of my head; many are my enemies without cause, those who seek to destroy me. I am forced to restore what I did not steal. 5 You know my folly, O God; my guilt is not hidden from you. 6 May those who hope in you not be disgraced because of me, O Lord, the LORD Almighty; may those who seek you not be put to shame because of me, O God of Israel. 7 For I endure scorn for your sake, and shame covers m

Romans 6:6

τουτο D-ASN γινωσκοντες V-PAP-NPM knowing this οτι CONJ ο T-NSM παλαιος A-NSM ημων P-1GP ανθρωπος N-NSM συνεσταυρωθη V-API-3S that our old man was crucified with him .................................. ινα CONJ καταργηθη V-APS-3S το T-NSN σωμα .................................. N-NSN της T-GSF αμαρτιας N-GSF του T-GSM .................................. in order that the body of sin may be brought .................................. to nothing .................................. μηκετι ADV δουλευειν V-PAN ημας P-1AP .................................. τη T- DSF αμαρτια N-DSF .................................. and henceforth we should not serve sin Moo differs in his understanding of this verse from the other commentators and translators. I am not in agreement with his understanding of the verb συνεσταυρωθη used here in this verse, where he equates it with the definite and final death of Christ as result of the crucifixion. I disagree because the finality of the

Romans 6:5

After working out v.5, I am again struck by the amazing Word of God. τω ομοιωματι του θανατου αυτου ομοιωματι being the dative of ομοιωμα makes it an object with which we are joined, hence the translation of: we have become united with the likeness of Christ. ομοιωμα has several meanings, in this case it would most likely take the meaning of form , in the sense of the outer appearance, or shape, or of the reality itself. Likeness of his death , may, then simply be the death of Christ itself. But Paul in making use of the word may want to portray Christ’t death in a particular light. Could it then be the cause of the atemporal nature of the application of death of Christ to the life of the believers; as a redemptive-historical association that cannot be precisely defined in terms of time or nature? While it does not differentiate the death to which we are joined from Christ’s death, it qualifies it in its particular redemptive historical “form”. And with this “form” of Christ’s d

Romans 6:5 Starters

I have been extremely busy today and I have not done enough to give Romans 6:5 a fair exposition. I will give it a try anyhow. ει COND γαρ CONJ συμφυτοι A-NPM γεγοναμεν V-2RAI-1P τω T-DSN ομοιωματι N-DSN του T-GSM θανατου N-GSM αυτου P-GSM For if we have been united with him in the likeness of his death .................................... αλλα CONJ και CONJ της T-GSF αναστασεως N- ................................................ GSF εσομεθα V-FXI-1P .................................... in the same way also we shall be united in .................................... the likeness of his resurrection V.5 expounds what has already been discussed in v.4. It comes in a conditional sentence with an if , followed by a then , though not used here is implied. This verse to me emphasises the completeness of the work of Christ that we are a part of as believers. If we are united with him in his death, so shall we be united with him in resurrection. There is no salvation without dea

Romans 6:4 Part 4

One final word on v.4: Moo closes the discussion on this verse with answers to the other 2 questions mentioned yesterday, i.e. why mention burial and why baptism as the means. Burial It is interesting to note that burial is mentioned because it is included in what is called the basic kerygma . For what I received I passed on to you as of first importance: that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures. ~ 1 Cor 15:3-4 (NIV) Burial was probably included in this simple summary because burial confirms the reality of death, completing the break from the old life. Our death with Christ to the old age of sin is final and definitive. Baptism as the Means We need to preserve the centrality of faith and at the same time do justice to the mediatorial role of baptism in this text. J. Dunn explains it succinctly: the early church conceive faith, the gift of the Spirit, and water baptism as componen

Romans 6:4 Part 3

I took a read (several, in fact) into Moo’s commentary of Romans 6:4 (p.361-367) and if I have been wading and testing the waters before, this has turned out to be a swim in deep waters. It is quite overwhelming – so much so that I begin to understand why some of my friends shy away from theology, taking the stand that God’s word is not suppose to be so complicated: it is we ourselves that make it so. That would be an issue for interesting discussion for another time, God willing, but for now, here’s Romans 6:4, according to Douglas Moo. Paul in v.4 draws a conclusion from v.3: we have been baptised into Christ and into death, therefore we are buried with him through baptism in order that we are also raised like Christ, to walk in newness of life. If we have died with Christ through (δια) baptism, we have also been buried with him through (δια) baptism. Moo says this raises 3 interrelated and controversial questions (p.361): 1. Why has Paul introduced the image of burial? 2. What is

Romans 6:4 Part 2

It has been bothering me for the whole day that I could not find anything on the "with" and "into" question I had yesterday. Only to realise that the "with" comes from the verb συνεταφημεν, which carries a meaning of being in company with , hence bury with . The preposition συν, with, is attached to the verb ταφω, bury . I really didn't know - it is all still Greek to me anyhow! Moo acknowledges that this preposition does create difficulties for a purely symbolic view: it is questionable whether its normal meaning of accompaniment can be stretched so far as to embrace the idea of a being buried (in our lives) as Christ was buried in his. He suggests that since it is through baptism that we are buried with Christ, we might think of Christ's burial (and death and resurreciton in v.5 also) as being present in baptism. (p.365) Through baptism, we are buried with our Lord Jesus. Paul is truly one profound bloke. Maeghan p/s talking about Moo, I had

Romans 6:4 Part 1

I am already thinking that I am too ambitious in trying to tackle one verse in only one day. The richness in this verse is the case in point. What with phrases like buried with him, buried through baptism, buried into death, raised from the dead, through the Father’s glory, in the same way, newness of life, might walk ; and I am only just beginning. συνεταφημεν V-2API-1P ουν CONJ αυτω P-DSM we were buried therefore with him .................... δια PREP του T-GSN βαπτισματος N-GSN .................… through baptism ……..................... .... εις PREP τον T-ASM θανατον N-ASM ………...…………………. into (the) death …................. ινα CONJ ωσπερ ADV ηγερθη V-API-3S χριστος N-NSM εκ .................... PREP νεκρων A-GPM …................. in order that just as Christ was raised from the dead ……………………………………………… δια PREP της T-GSF δοξης N-GSF του .................................................................. T-GSM πατρος N-GSM ……………………………………………… through the glory of th

Romans 6:3

η PRT αγνοειτε V-PAI-2P οτι CONJ do you not know that ................. οσοι K-NPM εβαπτισθημεν V-API-1P ................. all of us who have been baptised ...................................... εις PREP χριστον N-ASM ιησουν N-ASM ...................................... into Christ Jesus ...................................... εις PREP τον T-ASM θανατον N-ASM αυτου P- ................................................... GSM εβαπτισθημεν V-API-1P ...................................... into his death we have been baptised? I have discussed briefly about baptism here . What is of interest to me in v.3 is the preposition εις, into . What does it mean by "into Christ" and "into death"? I have looked into the more common "in Christ" before but what about "into Christ"? Wallace suggests 8 possible meaning of εις: 1. Spatial: into, toward, in 2. Temporal: for, throughout 3. Purpose: for, in order to, to 4. Result: so that, with the result

A Lament

Kindness, there is no need for it In the pursuits of the world Kindness, there is no place for it In the harshness of the soul Kindness, laid away Kindness, what use of it we say So alien we keep it at bay Never have much need of it today In its place what do we have Cruel words and heartlessness In nastiness and spite we laugh We border around maliciousness We thrive in putting others down So to raise ourselves in loftiness Wear a facade we thought a crown Stride in pride, such wantonness What a world we live in But do we find ourselves staging The same dreadful game The same frightful maim Copyright © 2006 Pearlie Ng

Romans 6:2

μη PRT-N γενοιτο V-2ADO-3S God forbid! οιτινες R-NPM απεθανομεν V-2AAI-1P τη T-DSF αμαρτια N-DSF we who have died to sin ................... πως ADV-I ετι ADV ζησομεν V-FAI-1P εν PREP αυτη P-DSF ................... how can we yet live in it? μη γενοιτο is a formula of strong denial used frequently by Paul always after a question. οιτινες is placed at the beginning to give more emphasis to the consideration which contains within itself the answer to the false inference. απεθανομεν τη αμαρτια is where everyone agrees it is of fundamental importance in this section though there is difficulty in agreeing to what exactly Paul means here. This has been previously posted before here . Maeghan

Romans 6:1

I have started on my Greek exegesis of Romans 6:1-14 and by God's grace I plan to do it on a one-verse-in-one-day basis. If I am disciplined enough at it, I should complete it in 2 weeks. τι I-ASN ουν CONJ What then? ερουμεν V-FAI-1P επιμενομεν V-PAI-1P τη T-DSF αμαρτια N-DSF (should we) say we continue in (the) sin ............................. ινα CONJ η T-NSF χαρις N-NSF πλεοναση V-AAS-3S ............................. so that (the) grace might increase ? ερουμεν is a Future Active Indicative. It carries a deliberative future nuance. It asks a question that implies some doubt about the response. It is asked in the first person singular or plural and is generally either cognitive or volitional. In this case it carries the volitional sense in asking "should we?" rather than the cognitive "how will we?" (Wallace p.570) πλεοναση is an Aorist Active Subjunctive with a deliberative rhetorical sense. The rhetorical question expects no verbal resp

Tune my heart to sing thy grace ...

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What touched me today is this hymn we have not sung for a long time. Beautiful words, beautiful tune. Come, Thou Fount of every blessing, Tune my heart to sing Thy grace; Streams of mercy, never ceasing, Call for songs of loudest praise. Teach me some melodious sonnet, Sung by flaming tongues above. Praise the mount! I’m fixed upon it, Mount of Thy redeeming love. Here I raise my Ebenezer; Here by Thy great help I’ve come; And I hope, by Thy good pleasure, Safely to arrive at home. Jesus sought me when a stranger, Wandering from the fold of God; He, to rescue me from danger, Interposed His precious blood. O to grace how great a debtor Daily I’m constrained to be! Let Thy goodness, like a fetter, Bind my wandering heart to Thee. Prone to wander, Lord, I feel it, Prone to leave the God I love; Here’s my heart, O take and seal it, Seal it for Thy courts above. O that day when freed from sinning, I shall see Thy lovely face; Clothed then in blood washed linen How I’ll sing Thy sovereig

Romans 4:18

During class, there was a short discussion on how ελπιδα επ ελπιδι is to be translated. To me it is quite an interesting phrase construction and description of Abraham's faith: that even though he knows that he and Sara are dead as far as their progeny is concerned (v.17), even when there is no reason for hope, Abraham kept on hoping (NLT 2004) , that he will become the father of many nations as promised by God. (The lecturer commented that the 2nd edition of the New Living Translation is very well done. I guess it's time I upgrade my 1996 copy?) This serves as a reminder to me that even when all hope is gone (not even seems gone but is gone), we can hope against hope that God will eternally be faithful in his love and his purpose; in fact even if we are faithless, he remains faithful - for he cannot deny himself (2Tim 2:13). Such is our God. We do not lose heart. We hope. We trust. ος παρ ελπιδα επ ελπιδι επιστευσεν ( hos gar elpida ep elpidi episteusen ) Who in h

Romans 4

I still stand by my opinion that Romans 4 is pretty straightforward. Imputation and double imputation was not really addressed during class, on the basis that they were not really the gist of the chapter. Paul was instead trying to drive home the point that justification is by faith and not works. And in answer to my questions yesterday: Is faith counted as righteousness? Faith recognised as righteousness? Yes on the basis of Rom 4:3: For what does the Scripture say? "Abraham believed God, and it was counted to him as righteousness." (ESV) That if I have faith, I have righteousness? If it is, won't it count as justification by works after all? No. Paul qualified Rom 4:3 with Rom 4:4-5: Now to the one who works, his wages are not counted as a gift but as his due. And to the one who does not work but trusts him who justifies the ungodly, his faith is counted as righteousness. (ESV) And what about double imputation? Christ's righteousness imputed on us? My s

Imputation and Double Imputation

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We are going to have our Romans 4 class tomorrow. I had thought that this chapter was pretty straightforward, but no, I was told. There is this issue of imputation and double imputation of which I have only just heard about. I checked Theopedia, double imputation is a doctrine related to justification, which views the concept of imputation as applying both to Christ and believers. While on one hand, our sins are imputed to Christ who bore them on the cross, Christ's righteousness is imputed to believers who are seen by God as cloaked in the righteousness of Christ. And imputation refers to the transfer of benefit or harm from one individual to another. That is why his faith was "counted to him as righteousness." But the words "it was counted to him" were not written for his sake alone, but for ours also. It will be counted to us who believe in him who raised from the dead Jesus our Lord, who was delivered up for our trespasses and raised for our justific

Journaling

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Carson talked about journaling in A Call to Spiritual Reformation as a discipline to help us adopt practical ways to impede mental drift. He thinks that the real value of journaling is several-fold: 1) It enforces a change of pace, a slowing down: it ensures time for prayer and when we are writing down our prayers, we will not end up day-dreaming 2) It fosters self-examination: only the examined life is worth living; if we are not taking time to examine our own heart, mind and conscience from time to time, in the light of God's word, and deal with what we find, we will become encrusted with the barnacles of destructive self-righteousness 3) It ensures quiet articulation both of our spiritual direction and of our prayers I am never good with journals. The longest journal I have ever maintained was probably for just 2-3 days, and in spurts. And therefore this web logging has been my greatest success at journaling ever. Even though it is different from a personal prayer journal w

What am I being thankful for?

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My recent reading and studying of Romans 4 and 6 does not seem to be as fruitful as I wanted it to be lately and so I decided to take a break. The break turns out to be DA Carson’s A Call to Spiritual Reformation , a book I wanted to reread for awhile now. According to Carson, there are 5 lessons we need to learn from the School of Prayer: (1) Much praying is not done because we do not plan to pray (2) Adopt practical ways to impede mental drift (3) At various periods in your life, develop, if possible, a prayer-partner relationship (4) Choose models – but choose them well (5) Develop a system for your prayer lists Then for a start, he uses 2 Thess 1:3-12 to present a Framework of Prayer . Paul lays foundations for his prayers in the letters he writes. In this letter, his prayer to the Thessalonians is found in v.11-12 with v.3-10 as his framework that controls what he prays for and why. Basically, the one fundamental component as the mental framework that we need to emulate is tha

A drink of joy from deathless springs

I am feeling a bit blue today; not so much because it is a Monday. I guess it is just one of those days - can't be explained. Today's pondering is something that cannot be put into words either. JS Bach's "Jesu Son of Man's Desiring" is so captivating I can listen to it forever. It makes me hopeful of the last day, when I can eternally be where the angels sing. Embedded mp3 removed - get it here . Jesu, joy of man’s desiring, Holy wisdom, love most bright; Drawn by Thee, our souls aspiring Soar to uncreated light. Word of God, our flesh that fashioned, With the fire of life impassioned, Striving still to truth unknown, Soaring, dying round Thy throne. Through the way where hope is guiding, Hark, what peaceful music rings; Where the flock, in Thee confiding, Drink of joy from deathless springs. Theirs is beauty’s fairest pleasure; Theirs is wisdom’s holiest treasure. Thou dost ever lead Thine own In the love of joys unknown. Words: Mar­t

How lavish his love … but they knew him not.

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I taught Sunday School today with 1 John 3:1 as the memory verse. See what sort of love the Father has given to us: that we should be called God's children — and indeed we are! For this reason the world does not know us: because it did not know him. (NET) 1. On the slave metaphor, how marvelous is it that even though we are called to be slaves to God, his love us is lavished on us so greatly that we are called his children. As slaves we are bound by the demand of a master and the gift is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord. As children, we are bound by his love and promised an inheritance in Christ Jesus our Lord. 2. And with regards to the DaVinci Code post, the second portion of the verse rings so true. Let me quote Barnes: “ Therefore the world knoweth us not - Does not understand our principles; the reasons of our conduct; the sources of our comforts and joys. The people of the world regard us as fanatics or enthusiasts; as foolish in abandoning the pleasures and

The Juxtaposition in Rom 6:15-23

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In Romans 6:15-23, Paul presents a rhetorical question, "should we sin since we will be forgiven anyway?" The answer? A definite "no". Following that, Paul presents his case using the slave metaphor and in doing so he places it as two sides in juxtaposition of one another: oooooooooooooooooooooiii law <> grace oooooooooooooooiii slave to sin <> slave to obedience ooooooooooooooooooooi death <> righteousness ii slave to impurity & wickedness <> slave to righteousness not controlled by righteousness <> controlled by righteousness ooooooooooooooooooooooooo <> set free ooooooooooooooooooooooooo <> slave to God ooooooooooooooooooooooooo <> eternal life oooooooooooooooooooii wages <> gift As to the using of slaves as a metaphor, the message may not be that strong for us compared to Paul's time when slavery were practised. Although Paul is no anarchist, he uses the metaphor for the easy understanding of the

A diagrammatic Rom 6:1-11

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Romans 6:1-11 is interesting. It can be seen as a dual layer message - Christ as the foundation of which we rest upon. Christ has died, was buried, then raised and now he lives. We have died in him, buried through baptism, raised with him and live a new life in him. Such is the beauty of life in Christ Jesus. Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation. The old has passed away; behold, the new has come ~ 2 Cor 5:17 Maeghan

Being a baby about it

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I am suffering from a writing block today. I could not manage to write much at work nor could I seem to articulate what I want to right now. So this could all be gibberish for all I care. Basically, there is this choral group opening that I want to take up but somehow or rather the timing is just not right. I could not seem to adjust time on my side for it. This means that I will have to give it up. I am really very unhappy and disappointed for not being able to be a part of it because this is something I really want to do. I have to resign to the fact that we do not always get what we want. I mean there are some things we really want, but we accept the fact that it is downright unattainable: to be able to sing like Katharyn McPhee for example, to write and publish prolifically like DA Carson or to work and logic things out like CS Lewis. I am very comfortable with the fact that even though I wish I could do all these, I really do, I am okay with it that I can’t. However, there are
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On Sunday, our pastor fully encourage all of us to watch The Da Vinci Code movie when it comes on screen, stating that we are all strong enough to withstand it. While I agree that we can by all means watch it but I cannot deny that I felt worried too. I have read The Da Vinci Code some months ago and being a very forgetful person, I have forgotten most of what I read save the general plotline. I realised this when I was reading Josh McDowell's The Da Vinci Code: A Quest for Answers . I really could not recall much of what was discussed in McDowell's book. I wasn't too impressed by The Da Vinci Code anyway though I thought that as fiction, it was pretty engaging. When I say I wasn't too impressed, I was refering to the so-called facts purported by Dan Brown in the book. I also felt quite incredulous when I was reading the last section of the book what I felt was an over-the-top climax. However, having finished reading McDowell, I felt I should reread The Da Vinci C
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Today’s class is postponed. This will give me a little bit more time to go through Romans 4 before class proper. I was reading Moo’s commentary on Romans this morning and find it not that easy a read. But it has a very interesting excursus on “Paul, Works of the Law, and First Century Judaism”. Reading it through reminded me of what my good friend and Romans classmate once commented: that Luther may be too extreme in arguing for justification by faith alone, and almost doing away completely faith by works. He should have qualified it and included some on justification by works, as Paul did. But could he? Given what the church was involved in at that time, I do not see how else could Luther have done it. Just like Paul who was strong in his conviction that justification is by faith, Luther fought for it hoping to undo what the church had done selling faith to the people at large who were biblically illiterate and whose only source of spiritual teaching is the church. However, did cir
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Some preparatory work for tomorrow's class on Romans 4. The fourth chapter of Romans is where Moo has segregated into the following sections under the main theme of "By Faith Alone: Elaboration with Respect to Abraham" Faith and Works (4:1-8) Faith and Circumcision (4:9-12) Faith, Promise and the Law (4:13-22) The Faith of Abraham and the Faith of the Christian (4:23-25) According to Moo, Paul expounds the great theological thesis of 3:21-26 in 3:27-4:25, with 3:27-31 as the Initial Statement. In this section, Paul no longer talks about atonement, the demonstration God's righteousness or the provision of sins under the Old Covenant, but about the vital theme stated in v.22, "the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe". Faith is seen to be the main topic in every part of this section of Romans. It is contrasted with: works of the law (3:28) works (4:1-8) circumcision (4:9-12) the law (4:13-16) sight (4:17-22) Paul argues